Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest For many of my neighbors and almost everyone in northern Ohio, it’s still in the bag. As I write this, it is obvious that more than one half of the corn crop this year will be planted after May 20. And at least some of the soybean crop will be planted in June. So our yields are likely to be depressed. We do know that with good growing conditions and timely late season rains, we can still produce a decent crop.These two items from the Ohio Agronomy Guide show the impact that delayed planting has on corn and soybean. As you read this, I hope you are finished planting and moving on to those important in-crop decisions. Table 4-9: Planting Date Affects Yield, Percent Grain Moisture, and Test Weight of Corn Grain (Columbus, Ohio). Planting Date (mo/day) Percent of Maximum Yield Percent Grain Moisture TestWeight (lbs/bu)4/23 – 4/2910020.8554/30 – 5/79923.7555/8 – 5/149224.9555/22 – 5/278728.2545/28 – 6/47935.0516/23 – 6/255240.049 Some other concerns about our crop may be whether or not we might be caught by a frost before maturity without a change in maturity selection. The corn plant has the ability to adapt to the later planting by advancing more rapidly through the growth stages. Work done at Purdue and Ohio State by graduate students of Bob Nielsen and Peter Thomison, show that the number of growing degree days (GDD) needed from planting to maturity decreases by about 7 GDD per day of delayed planting. So a hybrid planted on May 30 needs about 200 less GDDs to achieve maturity than a hybrid planted on May 1. However, the money you saved on propane last year may be spent on corn drying this year.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Application of pesticides using air-assisted, ground-based sprayers or airplane sprayers (or even drones in the very near future) has become a necessity to ensure high efficiency crop production. Meanwhile, intensive and extensive pesticide spray also has caused significant safety, health, and environmental concerns. Development of advanced precision and smart spray application technology and management can enable sustainable crop production and reduce the safety, health, and environmental concerns. Off-target deposition and drift of pesticideSpraying pesticides to suppress plant diseases or insect prevalence is a very complicated process. It involves mechanical generation of spray droplets, delivery of droplets to various plants, interaction of spray droplets with crops and the ambient environment, on-target droplet deposition, off-target droplet deposition onto ground, and off-target droplet drift in the atmospheric environment. Please notice that pesticide is typically sprayed as liquid droplets but sometimes can be applied as very fine dry dust particles. The U.S. EPA defines pesticide spray drift as “the movement of pesticide dust or droplets through the air to any site other than the area intended.” Obviously, we all wish a 100% on-target pesticide deposition because both off-target ground deposition and atmospheric drift represent not only as a loss of chemicals and waste of money, but also serious environmental pollution problems. In reality, the off-target spray droplet deposition and drift vary widely as a few types of traditional pesticide sprayers are widely used with relatively constant settings for different crop production at different geographic regions with highly varied environmental conditions. The off-target spray droplet deposition and drift can account for a large percentage of the total pesticide applied. Up to 70 million pounds of pesticide active ingredients are wasted to drift per year. Between 1% and 10% of agricultural pesticide sprays drift from the target. Environmental and health concernsWhen spraying pesticide, chemicals drift and transport through nearby fields and reach long distances in both rural and urban areas, it can have direct impact on humans, animals, and the environment. On non-target areas, pesticides can damage nearby vegetation and impact nearby aquatic systems. Drift of herbicides can injure other non-target crops. Exposure of humans to pesticides can potentially result in both acute problems such as skin irritation and asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases such as cancer. Key factors affecting pesticide applicationPesticide off-target deposition and drift are primarily affected by the weather conditions and application operating conditions. The weather conditions include wind direction and speed, ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and the terrain and vegetation. The pesticide application conditions include the type of nozzles used, nozzle operating pressure, nozzle size, boom height, spray volume, droplet or particle size, and spray control. Development of advanced intelligent sprayersTo reduce the off-target pesticide deposition and drift, researchers at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) have been conducting research for 75 years and made significant scientific and technical contributions for optimizing pesticide application technologies to improve pesticide application efficiencies, protect crops from pest damages, and safeguard environmental quality and food and worker safety. Recently, Heping Zhu, an Agricultural Engineer and the Lead Scientist at ATRU has led the development of sensor-guided intelligent sprayers for efficient variable-rate pesticide applications and a significant reduction of off-target pesticide deposition and drift.Assessment and control of pesticide drift using mathematic models. To further control the off-target pesticide deposition and drift, mathematic computational models can be developed to simulate interactions of pesticide droplets with corps to predict drift potentials in coordination with local weather conditions. Over the years, different models have been developed for prediction of drift from pesticide spray application. The models are expected to account for the pesticide movement including the effect of gravitational acceleration, air resistance, evaporation, and mode of application, and be used more universally. However, due to the complexity and high variability of the pesticide drift issues, there is no simple method existing for effective assessment of the issue. It is very difficult to control the drift without proper assessment methods. An effective, but simple assessment method and integration of the assessment with spray equipment control is needed.Researchers, Sewoon Hong, a postdoctoral research associate and Lingying Zhao, an extension engineer and professor, at The Air Quality and Bio-Environmental Engineering Lab (AQBEL) of The Ohio State University, are collaborating with Heping Zhu to develop the much-needed model tools as an effective approach to control pesticide application schedules for further minimizing drift potentials for the intelligent sprayers. We are applying recent advances in dispersion models to develop and validate a universal pesticide dispersion model and a model based expert system that will enable environmentally friendly and effective pesticide applications.A universal spray drift model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being developed using FLUENT to calculate complicated flow and dispersion close to the equipment and to distances up to 200 m. Then the outputs of the universal models will be used as inputs for the long-range dispersion and transport (0.2-10 km) using the U.S. EPA air pollution dispersion models: AERMOD and CALPUFF. These models will be validated by actual observations of spray drift from field studies. The values of spray drift distance and off-target deposition from validated models as a function of the weather conditions, topography, and terrain conditions will be interpolated, and then a database will be created. A user-friendly interface will be developed to access the database under-specified conditions, and this will be fed into the instrumentation of the sprayer equipment to help make intelligent spray decisions. The model tools will provide a practical approach to assess the probable risks of pesticide spray and help explore application strategies to mitigate pesticide drift, pesticide waste, and environmental and health risks.In summary, application of pesticides has become a necessity to ensure sustainable, high efficiency crop productions. Off-target pesticide deposition and drift have caused significant safety, health, and environmental concerns. Researchers at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU), led by Heping Zhu, has developed sensor-guided intelligent sprayers for efficient variable-rate pesticide applications and a significant reduction of off-target pesticide deposition and drift. Researchers with OSU and ATRU are collaborating to develop a universal spray drift model to further control operation schedule of sprayers to reduce the off-target deposition and drift of pesticide.Lingying Zhao, Professor and Extension Ag. Engineer, can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. This column is provided by the OSU Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, OSU Extension, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, and the College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.
The loss of crops due to floods in the State has been put at ₹125 crore, according to preliminary assessment by the government. Even as the exact extent of the damage will be known only after flood waters have fully receded, senior officials said around 27,468 hectare of agriculture land has been completely destroyed. This could even cross one lakh hectares when the panchnama is complete, senior officials said. Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis said on Saturday that the total length of road damaged is 484 km, while 2,615 transformers were damaged partially or fully. The destruction to agriculture land will cross over 1.5 lakh hectares, state Minister of Employment Guarantee and Horticulture of Maharashtra, Jaydutt Kshirsagar said on Saturday. Chief Secretary of the state Ajoy Mehta too has confirmed that crops across one lakh hectares could be affected. The State horticulture department has said they are drawing up the estimates with the help of satellite images, and the panchnama has been started with the help of Department of Revenue and Agriculture. “We expect major damage of agriculture crop to spread across 11 districts, while the centre of the destruction is Kolhapur where 30% of this damaged crop is located,” said an official of the Department of Revenue and Agriculture.Mr. Fadnavis said the government will not only compensate damaged crops but also help in removing silt from the farms, and provide assistance of ₹13,000 per hectare to the farmers. The work will be assisted by many organisations like Art of Living, Siddhivinayak temple, and Pandharpur temple, who have promised to come forward to help, he said.
The decision of the Punjab government to appoint six Congress legislators as Minister-rank advisers to Chief Minister Amarinder Singh has come under severe criticism from the Opposition parties, which on Tuesday accused the government of overburdening the State exchequer.Five of the MLAs appointed by the government are in the rank and status of Cabinet Minister while one is in the rank and status of Minister of State.Demand for withdrawalLeader of the Opposition and Aam Aadmi Party MLA Harpal Singh Cheema warned that if the decision is not immediately withdrawn, the party will explore legal remedies as the move is an attempt to “bypass the constitutional cap on the size of the State Cabinet”.“When Punjab is already struggling with huge debt burden, giving Cabinet Minister-level amenities to MLAs will bring great loss to the public exchequer,” he said.“We are exploring legal remedies if the State government does not immediately take its decision back,” added Mr. Cheema.The five MLAs in Cabinet Minister-rank are Kushaldeep Dhillon (Faridkot), Amrinder Raja Warring (Gidderbaha), Sangat Singh Gilzian (Urmar), Inderbir Bolaria (Amritsar) and Kuljit Nagra (Fatehgarh Sahib). Tarsem Singh (Attari) has been accorded the rank of Minister of State.The Shiromani Akali Dal also condemned the Congress government for burdening the State exchequer. Former Minister Bikram Singh Majithia said “it seems the Congress is trying to save its government from collapse and has in this process decided to fritter away the scarce resources of the State to its partymen”.“This amounts to daylight robbery of the State exchequer. With the latest addition, the total number of political appointees in the State government have risen to 26. What’s the logic of the move except to fatten its legislators at the exchequer’s expense,” said Mr. Majithia.Claiming that the appointments were illegal and against constitutional norms, he said: “Legislators can’t hold office of profit which these appointments are.”BJP’s national secretary Tarun Chugh told reporters that the decision was an attempt to circumvent the Constitution (91st Amendment) Act, 2003. Mr. Chug said that under the law, the strength of Ministers cannot exceed 15% of the total members of the House. With Punjab Assembly having 117 MLAs, the maximum strength of the Council of Ministers can be 18, and including the CM, the State already has 17 Ministers.
DefinitionMethyl salicylate is a wintergreen-scented chemical found in many over-the-counter products, including muscle ache creams. Methyl salicylate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of a product containing this substance.This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.See also: Sports cream overdoseAlternative NamesDeep heating rubs overdose; Oil of wintergreen overdosePoisonous IngredientMethyl salicylate, a compound similar to aspirinWhere FoundDeep-heating creams (Ben Gay, Icy Hot) used to relieve sore muscles and jointsOil of wintergreenSolutions for vaporizersNote: This list may not include all products that contain methyl salicylate.SymptomsBladder and kidneys:Kidney failureEyes, ears, nose, and throat:Eye irritationLoss of visionRinging in the earsThroat swellingHeart and blood:CollapseLow blood pressureLungs and airways:Difficulty breathingNo breathingRapid breathingNervous system:AgitationComa (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness)ConfusionConvulsionsDeafnessDizzinessDrowsinessHallucinationsHeadacheFeverSeizuresStomach and intestines:NauseaVomiting, possibly bloodyHome CareSeek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional.Before Calling EmergencyDetermine the following information:Patients age, weight, and conditionName of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)Time it was swallowedAmount swallowedPoison Control, or a Local Emergency NumberThe National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.advertisementThis is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.See: Poison control center – emergency numberWhat to Expect at the Emergency RoomThe health care provider will measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. You may receive:Activated charcoalBreathing support, including tube through the mouth and breathing machine (ventilator)Chest x-rayEKG (heart tracing)Fluids through a vein (by IV)Kidney dialysis (machine)LaxativeMedicine (sodium bicarbonate) to reverse the effect of the medicationTube from the mouth into the stomach to empty the stomach (gastric lavage)Outlook (Prognosis)How well you do depends on how much salicylate is in the blood and how quickly treatment is received. The faster you get medical help, the better the chance is for recovery.Most people can recover if the effect of the salicylate can be stopped (neutralized).Internal bleeding is possible, and blood transfusion may be needed. Endoscopy, or passing a tube through the mouth into the stomach, may be required to stop internal bleedingMethyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is the most poisonous (toxic) form of the salicylates.ReferencesTintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM. Salicylates. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 170.Kerr F, Krenzelok EP. Salicylates. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchesters Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 48.Seger DL, Murray L. Aspirin and Nonsteroidal Agents. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosens Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 149.Review Date:1/20/2014Reviewed By:Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.