A tree ring sample from a bristlecone pine reveals something weird happened to the sun around 5480 BC.This paper’s title should set off alarms for radiocarbon dating: “Large 14C excursion in 5480 BC indicates an abnormal sun in the mid-Holocene” (PNAS). For one thing, Christians might celebrate the apparent trend away from designating dates BCE (“before Common Era”) and back to BC (“Before Christ”). But what about this “abnormal sun”? And what does the carbon-14 anomaly mean for radiocarbon dating?Carbon-14 contents in tree rings tell us information of the past cosmic ray intensities because cosmic rays produce 14C in the atmosphere. We found a signature of a quite large increase of incoming cosmic ray intensity in the mid-Holocene (the 5480 BC event) from the measurement of 14C content in North American tree rings. The cause of this event is supposed to be an extremely weak sun, or a combination of successive strong solar bursts and variation of a solar magnetic activity. In any case, 14C variation of the 5480 BC event is extraordinary in the Holocene, and this event indicates the abnormal solar activity compared with other periods.The paper does not quantify how “extraordinary” this “large” increase was, other than to say it “one of the largest increase rates (0.51‰/y) in the Holocene,” faster even than the Maunder Minimum and two other known excursions. Unfortunately, they do not state what it means for published radiocarbon dates. The authors mainly focus on the fact that tree ring dating from this slice of California bristlecone pine provided finer resolution than previously-known anomalies—and may be indicative of other rapid changes in radiocarbon production in the atmosphere arising from different mechanisms. Readers may not be aware of the unknowns in this dating method:The 14C contents in tree rings are normally affected by the solar magnetic activities and the geomagnetic activities, which modulate the GCR flux [galactic cosmic rays] to Earth. There is an excellent tree ring record of 14C data in the international radiocarbon calibration curve IntCal. This record has a typically 10-y resolution extending to 13,900 y B.P. We can see solar and geomagnetic variations exhibited in the radiocarbon record as decadal to millennial time scale, i.e., 50- to 100-y variation such as grand solar minima, and ∼1,000-y variations of the geomagnetic dipole moment.On the other hand, there is little understanding of annual 14C variations, due to the lack of annual 14C data for periods before AD 1510. Previously, it was considered that annual variations of 14C contents do not change rapidly because the original signal is diluted and attenuated by the carbon cycle. Although most of annual 14C data show a gradual variation, there are some periods that show significant and rapid annual changes. The AD 775 and AD 994 (or AD 993) events are two examples of large changes, which occur at annual resolution. The 14C variation of these two events have a characteristic increase over 1 y to 2 y followed by a decay that reflects a rapid input of cosmic rays to the atmosphere within 1 y and the decay by the global carbon cycle. The most likely explanation of these events is that they were the result of extreme SPEs [solar proton events], based on verifications of annual 14C measurements using worldwide tree samples and annual 10Be measurements in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland. It is possible that there were more annual cosmic ray events like the 775 event and even other types of annual rapid 14C variation in the past.What’s notable is that this “extraordinary” and “large” anomaly was just discovered after decades of trust in radiocarbon dating. Experts have their calibration curves, which are supposed to tell technicians how to account for anomalies. Now, here’s another “excursion” away from the norm. Some process, whether the sun or galactic cosmic rays, may have produced more 14C than expected that year (however reliable the date 5480 BC can be regarded). If so, it seems likely that radiocarbon dates would be off by some unspecified amount. Perhaps it is not a big adjustment. But how many more excursions will surface in the future? What other unknown unknowns give false confidence in this highly-regarded dating method? Their last sentence sounds a warning: “In any case, the 14C variation of the 5480 BC event indicates an unprecedented anomaly in solar activity compared to other periods.”We alert interested geophysicists to this paper and solicit comments. Does it having any significant bearing on radiocarbon dates? (Visited 336 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#conferences#Events Guide#web We’re always on the lookout for upcoming Web tech events from around world. Know of something taking place that should appear here? Want to get your event included in the calendar? Let us know in the comments below or email us. Related Posts Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting ReadWrite Sponsors Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…
The Pistons are 10-3, and might be the surprise of the NBA The Australian captain converted from the spot in the 72nd after referee Nestor Pitana penalized Bryan Acosta for a hand ball and calmly slotted home another penalty in the 85th to ensure Australia qualified for its fourth consecutive World Cup.“I’ll take them all,” Jedinak said of his goals. “It wouldn’t have mattered who scored. I’m happy to chip in.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutForward Alberth Elis got a consolation goal for Honduras deep into injury time.Honduras earned a playoff spot with a 3-2 win over Mexico on a hectic last day of qualifying in North and Central America and the Caribbean, securing fourth spot and ensuring the U.S. missed out. Read Next CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 LATEST STORIES QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Australia had the better opportunities in a 0-0 draw in the first leg last Friday in San Pedro Sula.But after a frustrating first half, when Tom Rogic created the only real chance with a mistimed shot in the 37th, Australia dominated the second half.Australia had opportunities to qualify directly for Russia in Asian qualifying but missed out on goal difference to Saudi Arabia in a tight finish in that group.That forced the Australians into an Asian playoff against Syria, which veteran Tim Cahill sealed with two goals in Sydney last month to set Australia up for the last-ditch home-and-away series against Honduras.The Australians edged Uruguay on penalties in a playoff in 2005 to qualify for the following year’s World Cup in Germany, and then qualified directly for 2010 and 2014.ADVERTISEMENT Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Australia’s Mile Jedinak scores a goal against Honduras during their World Cup soccer playoff deciding match in Sydney, Australia, Wednesday, Nov. 15, 2017. (AP Photo/Daniel Munoz)SYDNEY — Mile Jedinak led Australia into next year’s World Cup with a deflected free kick and two penalties in Wednesday’s 3-1 intercontinental playoff victory over Honduras.Jedinak, who missed the latter stages of Australia’s Asian qualifying campaign because of injury, opened the scoring when his free kick curled to the left of the wall and went in off defender Henry Figueroa in the 54th minute, bringing the 77,060 crowd at Sydney’s Olympic stadium to life.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Australia coach Ange Postecoglou said his Socceroos “did it the hard way, but we deserve to be there.”The final word went to the jubilant Jedinak, a veteran midfielder who plays for second-tier Aston Villa in England.“We got the job done and that’s all that matters — it’s going to be a big 2018,” he said. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments
MOST READ Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo LOOK: Mayweather says he’ll party all week leading to McGregor fight LATEST STORIES Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ “We have a long-term plan all the way to Tokyo 2020, I don’t want to commit the same mistakes I had in Rio, so this early I want to prepare,” added Tabal who stands to receive P300,000 from the Philippine Sports Commission.READ: Tabal wins half marathon in CanadaBy all indications, Tabal has already put aside her rift with the Philippine Track and Field Association as she went on to hug Patafa chief Philip Ella Juico at the end of the race.Juico stationed himself by the drinking station and even handed her drinks in one of the four loops around Putrajaya government district.She also made no mention of her strained relations with the athletics body that sacked her twice in the last two years over issues regarding her coaches and sponsors.ADVERTISEMENT NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul Mary Joy Tabal wins the first gold medal for the Philippines when she ruled the women’s marathon at the 2017 SEA Games in Putrajaya, Malaysia. INQUIRER/ MARIANNE BERMUDEZPUTRAJAYA, Malaysia — Soon after crossing the finish line in this kingly, immense district, Mary Joy Tabal said she would like to immediately visit a church.“It’s been a long time since I went to church, I have so much to thank God for,” said Tabal after ruling the Southeast Asian Games women’s marathon for the country’s first gold.ADVERTISEMENT Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH03:04Filipino athletes share their expectations for 2019 SEA Games00:45Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games00:36Manny Pacquiao part of 2019 SEA Games opening ceremony Her gold medal victory, the first for the Philippines in this SEA Games, made it all seemed right.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Tabal said that every time she passed by the end of the loop where Filipino fans were gathered, “it’s like all my hardships disappear.”READ: Tabal delivers first gold medal for PH, rules women’s marathonFEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games opening“I would feel very heavy physically, but I just decided to go my own pace. I knew that God will guide me as long as I keep running and keep my own pace” said Tabal.Now the petite lass from Guba, Cebu City is setting her sights on the Asian Games next year in Indonesia. Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim View comments
NEW YORK — The investigation into sexual-misconduct claims against former CBS CEO Les Moonves will loom over the network’s annual shareholder meeting on Tuesday.But no major decisions are expected right away. A newly revamped board will have to decide by the end of January whether Moonves receives a $120 million severance package. It will also have to chart the path for CBS to recover from the scandal.Moonves was ousted in September after The New Yorker published allegations from 12 women who said he subjected them to mistreatment. The network launched an investigation with two outside law firms.Shareholders will vote to elect 11 board members, six of whom came aboard in a reshuffling after the scandal broke.The Associated Press
Yu originally had planned to join the Resource Coalition Convoy in Ottawa to voice concerns over Bill C48 and Bills C69, which could threaten the energy industry.The Convoy, organized by Rally 4 Resources and Canada Action, was scheduled to leave Red Deer sometime in mid-February.No plans to reschedule have been made. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – FSJ for LNG says the Resource Coalition Convoy has been cancelled.In a Facebook post, Alan Yu, Founder and Chairman of FSJ for LNG says that it was no longer viable to proceed with the planned Convoy, adding that they will be fully refunding donors.“Unfortunately, we have come to the decision that it is no longer viable to proceed with our planned convoy. We cannot confidently mitigate the unexpected challenges associated with this event. As such, we will be issuing full refunds to all of our donors.”
New Delhi: It was a sunny morning in the national capital on Saturday with the maximum temperature expected to hover around 39 degrees Celsius, with thunderstorms and squalls expected in the later part of the day. The minimum temperature was recorded at 22.4 degrees Celsius, three notches above the season’s average. “The sky was clear in morning. Thunderstorm with squall is likely to take place,” an Indian Meteorological Department official said. At 8.30 a.m. the humidity was recorded at 58 per cent. On Friday, the maximum temperature was recorded at 39.3 degrees Celsius, five notches above the season’s average, while the minimum was season’s average at 20 degrees Celsius.
New Delhi: McDonald’s India and its estranged partner Vikram Bakshi have been directed by the Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) to appear before it and deposit the proceeds of the proposed settlement with respect to their joint venture firm CPRL. Earlier this month, fast food chain McDonald’s reached an out-of-court settlement with Bakshi, buying out Connaught Plaza Restaurants Pvt Ltd from the joint venture. Allowing an application by the state-owned HUDCO on May 9, the presiding officer of DRT II Delhi has directed Bakshi not to transfer his 3,100 attached share of Connaught Plaza Restaurant Ltd (CPRL), a Joint venture between him and McDonald’s India to operate fast food chain in northern and eastern India. Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), which is claiming a dues of Rs 194.98 crore from Bakshi and his related entities, in its petition filed before the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) informed that notices regarding orders of the DRT was already served to both the partners. “The presiding officer directed McDonald’s India and Vikram Bakshi to appear before the DRT and deposit the proceeds of the settlement with the DRT II, Delhi. “Furthermore, Vikram Bakshi was directed not to transfer the attached shares (of CPRL) and also to file the details of the rates of the shares as on date,” said HUDCO. The DRT had also issued attachment notice with respect to the bank accounts of Ascot Hotels & Resorts. “It is clear that respondent Vikram Bakshi can not alienate or transfer his shares in CPRL in view of the specific directions of the DRT vide order February 2, 2016, where Vikram Bakshi was restrained from transferring or alienating or creating any third party interest in respect of the said shares,” the corporation said. However, it is not clear whether Bakshi and representatives of McDonald’s India have appeared before the DRT yet. Bakshi had given guarantee to HUDCO against a loan of Rs 62.38 crore to Ascot Hotels and Resorts for a commercial project in Noida, UP in 2006, which was defaulted and declared as NPA in August 2011. To recover it, HUDCO then had moved the DRT in 2013 and requested to attach 3,100 shares (having a value of Rs 1,000 each) in CPRL, which were in the name of Bakshi. “The respondent Vikram Bakshi had given his affidavit and undertaking that the shares held by him in CPRL will not be alienated or transferred,” said HUDCO while annexing copy of Bakshi’s affidavit in its petition filed before the NCLAT. Passing the judgement, the DRT had on August 12, 2015 issued recovery certificate in favour of HUDCO to recover the sum along with 14 per cent interest from Ascot Hotels, Vikram Bakshi, Madhurima Bakshi and Vikram Bakshi & Co Ltd. Thereafter, respondent, including Bakshi, was asked to disclose their details of movable and immovable assets. However, on their repeated failure to do so, HUDCO moved the DRT again for attachment of their bank account and 3,100 shares held by Bakshi in CPRL. On this, DRT had on February 2, 2016 issued “interim directions restraining Vikram Bakshi from alienating or transferring or creating any third party interest in the 3,100 shares of CPRL or any other quantity in the name of Vikram Bakshi till further orders.” Last week, when HUDCO came to know about the settlement between Bakshi and McDoanld’s, it moved an intervention application before the NCLAT, where both have filed petition against each other. “The settlement so arrived at between the appellant (McDonald’s India) and respondent (Bakshi) with regards to transfer of shares to the appellant without settling the dues of the applicant/intervenor (HUDCO) will cause grave and irreparable losses to the public exchequer,” said HUCO, adding that it can not proceed without its approval. HUDCO in its petition has requested the appellate tribunal to direct Bakshi “to furnish complete particulars and documents relating to the settlement” and to “deposit the entire proceeds of settlement” before the DRT for discharge of liability towards it. Earlier on May 6, estranged partners McDonald’s and Bakshi had informed the NCLAT that they were working towards an out-of-court settlement to end their dispute. On May 9, they announced an out-of-court settlement with the US fast food chain agreeing to buy Bakshi’s stake from their joint venture that operated outlets of the chain in north and east India. The details of the pact, including financial terms, were not disclosed. During the last hearing on May 15, 2019, the NCLAT had suggested Bakshi and his entities to settle the matter with HUDCO and has posted the matter on May 27 for next date of hearing. Meanwhile, a two-member NCLAT bench headed by Chairperson Justice S J Mukhopadhaya also said: “The pendency of the appeal will not come in the way of Vikram Bakshi & Others to negotiate and settle the matter with HUDCO”.
The United States was seconds away from defeating Portugal on Sunday when Michael Bradley, normally one of the steadiest American players, mishandled a ball in midfield and gave Portugal a last opportunity. Silvestre Varela took advantage, scoring on a header.But the 2-2 draw was a result the U.S. might have been happy with before the match began. It improved the Americans’ odds of advancing to the knockout round of the World Cup. Those chances are up to 76 percent, according to the FiveThirtyEight forecast, an improvement from 65 percent before Sunday’s match.That 76 percent figure may even be slightly low, for reasons I’ll explain in a moment. Still, the U.S. will not be guaranteed advancement unless it manages at least a draw against Germany on Thursday in Recife, Brazil. If the U.S. loses, the Portugal-Ghana game, which will kick off simultaneously in Brasilia, could cause heartbreak for Americans. You may want to have two screens at your disposal for Thursday’s matches.The U.S. has essentially three ways to advance to the knockout stage:The easy way. First, it could draw or beat Germany. That might not sound so challenging, but the Germans are the third-best team in the world, according to ESPN’s Soccer Power Index. Our forecast gives the U.S. a 14 percent chance of a win and a 22 percent chance of a draw — but a 64 percent chance of a loss. As a bonus, however, the U.S. will advance first from Group G if it beats Germany. That matters because the first-place team from Group G is likely to face Russia or Algeria in the Round of 16 — while the second-place team will face a stronger side in Belgium.The almost-as-easy way. Next, the United States could lose to Germany but advance if Ghana and Portugal draw in Brasilia. Our forecast puts the chance of a Ghana-Portugal draw at 29 percent.The hard way. Finally, the U.S. could lose to Germany but advance because it edges either Portugal or Ghana — whichever team wins in Brasilia — on goal differential or another of FIFA’s tiebreakers.Let’s talk tiebreakers. FIFA resolves ties in the group stage in the following order: goal differential, goals scored, head-to-head results. (Eventually, it gets down to drawing lots.)So far, the United States has four goals scored and three allowed — a +1 differential. Ghana has scored three times but allowed four goals — a -1 differential. Portugal has scored twice but allowed six goals, giving them a -4.That seems favorable for the U.S. But we’re specifically concerned about the scenario where the United States loses Thursday and there’s a victor in Brasilia. In that case, the goal differential will tighten.For example, if the U.S. loses to Germany 1-0 but Ghana beats Portugal 1-0, then the U.S. and Ghana would have an even goal differential. They’d also each have four goals scored and four goals allowed. So advancement would come down to the third tiebreaker — head-to-head results — and the U.S. would advance only on account of having beaten Ghana.But Ghana could advance under other scenarios. If the U.S. loses to Germany by more than one goal — not unlikely against a formidable German offense — or Ghana’s win against Portugal is by more than one goal, then Ghana will go forward.Ghana would also advance if both games are decided by one goal but Ghana’s is higher scoring. For instance, if Ghana beats Portugal 2-1 but the U.S. loses to Germany 1-0, then Ghana would advance on the basis of the goals-scored tiebreaker by having scored five goals throughout the group stage to the United States’ four.The U.S. has less to worry about if Portugal wins in Brasilia. But it’s not out of the question that the Portuguese could advance. This would require a blowout win by Portugal, a blowout loss by the U.S. or some combination thereof. For example, if the U.S. lost to Germany 3-0 and Portugal beat Ghana 3-1, then Portugal would advance.So, why I do I say that our 76 percent figure might slightly underestimate the Americans’ chances? One reason is technical rather than soccer-related: Our simulation was programmed to resolve ties beyond goals scored and goal differential randomly, rather than looking at head-to-head results, because the head-to-head tiebreaker so rarely comes into play. But if a Ghanaian win in Brasilia and an American loss in Recife come by exactly the same scoreline — e.g. Ghana 3, Portugal 2, and Germany 3, U.S. 2 — that would trigger the head-to-head tiebreaker. The probability of such an outcome is low, but it means the simulator has slightly underestimated the U.S.’s advancement prospects, perhaps by 1 or 2 percent.The other reason is that four teams in Group G know this math just as well as you or I do — and that could affect the style of play in both Recife and Brasilia. Germany has no real incentive to beat the United States — it also advances in first place from the group with a draw. A draw is also a good result for the U.S., getting it to the knockout stage. That could lead to a more conservative game plan for both teams and a slower pace, making the odds of a draw higher than they otherwise might be.Of course, just the opposite is true for Ghana and Portugal. Both teams fail to advance with a draw. In fact, a mere one-goal win would be problematic for both teams and especially for Portugal. That means they’ll have every reason to play attacking football and pile on the goals until the last minute, making a draw less likely and a lopsided score more likely than it might be ordinarily.
Welcome to the latest episode of Hot Takedown, FiveThirtyEight’s sports podcast. On this week’s show (May 9, 2017), we’re joined by FiveThirtyEight’s Chris Herring to break down the latest news from the NBA playoffs as we edge closer and closer to the conference championships. We discuss Celtics vs. Wizards and the sweeps by the Cavaliers and the Warriors. Next, the Mets have had a wild week, but is their injury-ridden squad cursed? Finally, FiveThirtyEight’s Christie Aschwanden returns to fill us in on the attempts to run a two-hour marathon. Plus, a significant digit on Ryan Howard.You can check FiveThirtyEight’s latest NBA predictions, which are updated after every game.The Ringer’s Jonathan Tjarks says the Celtics-Wizards series has been a game of coaching Whac-A-Mole.In his latest piece, FiveThirtyEight’s Chris Herring takes a look at Draymond Green’s defensive prowess.Chris also wrote about how Isaiah Thomas, the shortest guy in the NBA, became unstoppable.Rob Arthur wrote about the Mets’ unremarkable injury woes.FiveThirtyEight’s latest MLB predictions (updated after every game) currently give the Mets a 38 percent chance of making the playoffs.FiveThirtyEight’s Christie Aschwanden shared some thoughts on Eliud Kipchoge’s attempt to run a two-hour marathon. He came tantalizingly close.Significant Digit: .184, Ryan Howard’s batting average for the Atlanta Braves’ Triple-A Gwinnett team. Howard was released from his contract on Monday after 11 games. More: Apple Podcasts | ESPN App | RSS | Embed Embed Code FiveThirtyEight