The ages of South Georgia Reindeer collected from the introduced herds, and of carcasses from natural deaths were determined using patterns of tooth replacement and eruption, and annulations in the cementum of incisor teeth. Replacement and eruption patterns are typical of the species. The difficulties encountered with the patterns of cementum deposition on the incisors, and consequently with the assignment of age to animals with established permanent dentition, are described in detail. The overall result is the underageing of a proportion of the specimens, and the problems demonstrated are ascribed to the influence of the alien environment and oceanic climate in which the animals live.
The Oxford Playhouse Theatre has launched a project to significantly update its facilities. The refurbishment will cost £700,000 of which over half will come from the Arts Council’s Small Capital Fund. The upstairs circle bar will be moved to the centre of the circle to facilitate the movement of people. Interim Director, Polly Cole, commented, “it makes more sense for it to be in the centre because you come up both sides. It will also be larger so we can serve more people.”There will also be a major change to the auditorium, last updated in 1996. Cole observed that at the moment “the seating is worn, the fixtures are collapsing… some of the seats collapse so we have to check them between shows to make sure they are fit for purpose. The carpet is horrendously worn. It is currently held together with gaffer tape.”Other modernizations will include replacing the air conditioning system, refurbishing the downstairs foyer bar and replacing leather stools with fabric. However, Cole was keen to assure regular theatregoers that “the look of it [the theatre] will be very similar, it will change slightly.”It is thought that 150,000 people go the Playhouse every year. The Playhouse also has a strong relation with student drama, offering two performance slots a term for student productions.The work will take place for one month every summer for the next three years. The theatre is currently closed until the 18th of August.
Doni also pledged to support and collaborate with the board of governors, the government and the relevant authorities in helping Indonesia’s economic recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a statement by the central bank on Tuesday.A native of Surabaya, East Java, Doni, 55, began working for BI in 1991 as a staffer at the monetary management department. He has held several positions at BI in cities across Java. He last headed BI’s human resources department.Doni was one of three names presented by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo to the House of Representatives last month as candidates for BI deputy governor, along with Aida S. Budiman and Juda Agung.BI is run by a board of governors. The current governor, Perry Warjiyo, is supported by senior deputy governor Destry Damayanti, as well as deputy governors Sugeng, Rosmaya Hadi, Dody Budi Waluyo and Doni.Topics : Long-time central banker Doni Primanto Joewono was sworn in as the new Bank Indonesia (BI) deputy governor on Tuesday, filling in the third-most senior position at the central bank.Doni, an economist by training, replaces Erwin Rijanto, whose tenure ended in June. Presidential Decree No. 78/2020, signed by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo on July 30, confirms the appointment, with Doni’s tenure to run until 2025.“I swear to take on the position of Bank Indonesia deputy governor and will not give or promise anything to anyone,” he said during the livestreamed inauguration ceremony led by chief justice Muhammad Syarifuddin at the Supreme Court in Jakarta.
For Lakers’ LeBron James, Jacob Blake’s shooting is bigger issue than a big Game 4 victory Clippers hope they can play to their capabilities, quell Mavericks’ momentum Clippers vs. Mavericks Game 5 playoff updates from NBA beat reporters Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error “That’s the best my shoulders have felt in a really long time, so I knew coming into tonight shooting wouldn’t be a problem,” George added. “Just playing basketball is what I’m lacking right now.”George was playing for the first time since coming to the Clippers in a midsummer trade because he’d been recovering from procedures in May on his right shoulder and June on his left.“A lot of breakdowns happened because of my lack of being out there with those guys,” George said. “I’m here to win games and I didn’t get a win. … We had a chance to win tonight and a couple bad possessions in a row that we have down the stretch and we lose. That’s what I gauge good games and bad games on.”Holiday, who had six steals in all, intercepted of Lou Williams’ attempted bounce pass in the final seconds to seal the victory. The play capped off a night in which Holiday scored 12 in the final 4:20, including a pair of pivotal 3-pointers.“It felt good,” said Holiday, who hadn’t scored as many as 20 points in any of his previous eight games. “It’s all about timing and rhythm. I felt like I got a little bit of that back tonight.” PreviousNew Orleans Pelicans forward Brandon Ingram (14) tries to score as Los Angeles Clippers forward Patrick Patterson (54) grabs the ball from him during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Clippers guard Lou Williams dribbles around Pelicans guard Frank Jackson during the first half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. during the second half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. Williams had 31 points and eight assists, but L.A. lost 132-127. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard Jrue Holiday (11) and guard JJ Redick (4) high-five after Holiday scored on the Los Angeles Clippers during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer) SoundThe gallery will resume insecondsClippers forward Paul George, right, shields the ball from Pelicans guards E’Twaun Moore, left, and Nickeil Alexander-Walker during the second half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. Paul had 33 points, nine rebounds and four assists in 24 minutes in his Clippers debut, but L.A. lost 132-127. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard E’Twaun Moore (55) jumps up as Los Angeles Clippers guard Lou Williams (23) passes the ball to a teammate during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers guard Lou Williams (23) keeps the ball away from the New Orleans Pelicans during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers coach Doc Rivers reacts after a play during the first half of the team’s NBA basketball game against the New Orleans Pelicans in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers center Ivica Zubac (40) jumps to defend as New Orleans Pelicans guard E’Twaun Moore attempts to score in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans head coach reacts to a play against the Los Angeles Clippers in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers forward Montrezl Harrell (5) catches the ball after it bounces off the rim in the first half of an NBA basketball game against the New Orleans Pelicans in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans forward Brandon Ingram (14) tries to score as Los Angeles Clippers forward Patrick Patterson (54) grabs the ball from him during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers guard Terance Mann (14) dribbles down the court in the first half of an NBA basketball game against the New Orleans Pelicans in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard Jrue Holiday (11) scores against the Los Angeles Clippers during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers forward Paul George (13) and guard Jerome Robinson (1) celebrate a point against the New Orleans Pelicans in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard Jrue Holiday (11) dives for the ball in possession of Los Angeles Clippers forward Montrezl Harrell (5) in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard Frank Jackson (15) dribbles downcourt against the Los Angeles Clippers in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers forward Paul George (13) dribbles down the court against the New Orleans Pelicans in the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans center Jaxson Hayes (10) scores against the Los Angeles Clippers in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Clippers head coach Doc Rivers yells on the sideline after a play in the first half of an NBA basketball game against the New Orleans Pelicans in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans guard E’Twaun Moore (55) holds the ball as Los Angeles Clippers guard Rodney McGruder (19) defends in the second half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers forward Paul George (13) dribbles the ball as New Orleans Pelicans guard Jrue Holiday squeezes by Clippers forward Montrezl Harrell (5) in the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Los Angeles Clippers forward Paul George (13) taps the hand of Clippers head coach Doc Rivers as he walks to the bench in the second half of an NBA basketball game against the New Orleans Pelicans in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)New Orleans Pelicans forward Brandon Ingram (14) tries to score as Los Angeles Clippers forward Patrick Patterson (54) grabs the ball from him during the first half of an NBA basketball game in New Orleans, Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)Clippers guard Lou Williams dribbles around Pelicans guard Frank Jackson during the first half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. during the second half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. Williams had 31 points and eight assists, but L.A. lost 132-127. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)NextShow Caption1 of 22Clippers guard Lou Williams dribbles around Pelicans guard Frank Jackson during the first half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. during the second half of Thursday’s game in New Orleans. Williams had 31 points and eight assists, but L.A. lost 132-127. (AP Photo/Sophia Germer)ExpandNEW ORLEANS — Paul George expected to shoot well in his Clippers’ debut because his surgically repaired shoulders felt great.It was the rest of his game – from ball handling to defense – that concerned him.Jrue Holiday scored 36 points and stole the ball from George three times in the final minutes to lead the New Orleans Pelicans to a 132-127 victory over the Clippers on Thursday night when both teams were without several key players.“I thought I was terrible,” said George, who was limited to 24 minutes by early foul trouble but still scored 33 points on 10-for-17 shooting with nine rebounds. He was 10 for 10 from the free-throw line. What the Clippers are saying the day after Luka Doncic’s game-winner tied series, 2-2 Kristaps Porzingis ruled out as Clippers, Mavericks set for Game 5; Follow for game updates George opened the second half with a driving layup, pull-up jumper and a 3-pointer as part of an 11-2 run to make it 74-70.The Clippers inched ahead when Williams hit a 3-pointer and followed with a driving layup as he was fouled to make it 88-86.Neither team led by more than eight after that.TIP-INSClippers: Montrezl Harrell had 18 points on 8-of-12 shooting. … McGruder came in 1 for 6 from 3-point range for the season but went 5 for 7 on Thursday. … The Clippers were 11 for 24 from beyond the arc, with George going 3 for 5.Pelicans: E’Twaun Moore scored 15 in his first start of the season as the Pelicans used their eighth starting lineup in their first 11 games. … Guard Josh Hart (left knee and ankle sprains) and center Jahlil Okafor (left ankle sprain) both joined Ingram, Ball and top draft choice Zion Williamson in street clothes on the bench.UP NEXTThe Clippers host Atlanta on Saturday at 7:30 p.m. in the first of five straight home games. Derrick Favors, in his first season with New Orleans, had 20 points and a career-best 20 rebounds in the first 20-20 game of his 10-year career.“I’m starting to get comfortable now and just try to keep it going throughout the year,” Favors said. “It was a great game for me, a great game for the team, and we came out and played hard, but we just have to stay consistent.”Frank Jackson added 23 points in a reserve role.The Clippers played without Kawhi Leonard, who was being rested for the third time this season to ease stress on his sore knee after playing a night earlier in a loss at Houston. But the Pelicans were hardly sympathetic with starters Brandon Ingram (right knee) and Lonzo Ball (groin) sidelined, and contributors Josh Hart (left knee and ankle sprains) and center Jahlil Okafor (left ankle sprain) also in street clothes. Top draft choice Zion Williamson has yet to play a regular-season minute as he recovers from knee surgery.The Clippers played without Kawhi Leonard, who was being rested for the third time this season to ease stress on his sore knee after playing a night earlier in a loss at Houston, Patrick Beverley (sore calf) and Landry Shamet (high ankle sprain). But the Pelicans were hardly sympathetic with starters Brandon Ingram (right knee) and Lonzo Ball (adductor strain) sidelined.A George 3-pointer cut the Pelicans’ lead to 126-123 with 42 seconds left. But the Clippers left Jackson unguarded on the perimeter on the other end, and he took his time squaring up and connecting on his fourth 3 of the game to restore New Orleans’ six-point lead with 30 seconds left.J.J. Reddick, who started and scored 19, hit two free throws with 11.4 seconds left to help wrap up just New Orleans’ third victory in 11 games this season.Williams scored 31 points and Rodney McGruder 20 for the Clippers (7-5), who have dropped two in a row.MOMENTUM SHIFTSThe Pelicans trailed 43-36 early in the second quarter when they put together the game’s first big run.Favors scored six straight points on a free throw, a tip-in and his first 3-pointer of the season from the left corner. Holiday’s 3-pointer soon after capped a 13-1 run which put New Orleans up 50-44.Holiday added two more 3-pointers, and Jackson another to widen New Orleans’ lead to 14 at 66-52. Holiday’s driving dunk and finger roll pushed his two-quarter point total to 24, and the Pelicans led 72-59 at halftime.Related Articles
DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) — Iowa Gov. Kim Reynolds has signed an emergency disaster proclamation to allow state resources to be used to respond to flooding in portions of the state, including here in north-central Iowa.Reynolds also on Thursday activated the state emergency operations center to coordinate the response to flooding and help monitor rapidly-evolving conditions.The local counties include Cerro Gordo, Butler, Hancock, Kossuth, Winnebago, Worth and Wright.The governor’s action allows individuals in 21 counties in northern and western Iowa to qualify for grants for home or car repairs, replacement of clothing or food and temporary housing.The Iowa Department of Natural Resources says it has closed all or part of nine state parks due to rising flood water.
MAN CITY VS SUNDERLANDMAN CITY (4-2-3-1)HART, SAGNA, DEMICHELIS, OTAMENDI, KOLAROV, FERNANDINHO, FERNANDO, DE BRUYNE, SILVA, STERLING, AGUEROSUNDERLAND (5-3-2)DEFOE, WATMORE, JOHNSON, M’VILA, TOIVONEN, VAN AANHOLT, KABOUL, O’SHEA, COATES, JONES, PANTILIMONOn Monday, Manchester City lost 2-1 to Barclays Premier League rivals Arsenal at the Emirates Stadium, leaving them in third place and six points behind leaders Leicester City.It further highlighted City’s problems away from home.; of their 33 goals in the Premier League this season, no fewer than 25 have come at the Etihad Stadium.Sunderland, meanwhile, have lost their last three and five of their last seven, results that leave the Black Cats in the relegation zone, in 19th place. And they arrive at the Etihad Stadium where they have never won in the Premier League.In 11 visits to City’s home ground, Sunderland have lost nine and drawn two. They last won at City in January 1998 in the second tier.And Sunderland have picked up just five points in their last 11 Premier League away games, winning one, drawing two and losing eight. The Black Cats have also conceded the most goals (33) and have allowed their opponents the most shots on target (106) in the Premier League this season.City recalled Sergio Aguero for the Arsenal game though, after three games out, he lasted just over an hour before being replaced. City were still without Vincent Komapny but the captain could return in time to face Sunderland.Fernando and Pablo Zabaleta also missed the Emirates match and will undergo tests. But Samir Nasri is still absent.Sunderland, meanwhile, will miss Jack Rodwell after the midfielder collected his fifth yellow card of the season, at Chelsea. Sebastian Larsson is also missing while Lee Cattermole a doubt after missing the last game with a back problem.
RELATED ARTICLES Air Sealing an AtticSealing Ducts: What’s Better, Tape or Mastic?Creating a Conditioned Attic Two Ways to Insulate Attic KneewallsInsulating a Cape Cod HouseOut With The Old, In With The NewGreen Basics: Roofs: Attics, Structure, CladdingsSite-Built Ventilation Baffles for Roofs Delay a decision on HVACAlthough a 24-year-old furnace may be getting a little long in the tooth, Dana Dorsett suggests that Emerson delay the decision on his HVAC system for now and concentrate on air-sealing and otherwise weatherizing the house. How much fuel he uses over the winter becomes a “firm upper-bound” on sizing a replacement system.When the time comes for a replacement system, Dorsett says, Emerson may find that ductless minisplits sized correctly for cooling will also be able to handle the heating load. “But,” he says, “we don’t really know that yet.”“A fuel-use heat load calculation wouldn’t tell you the room loads, but it would establish the upper limit of the whole-house load,” Dorsett explains. “It’s possible that the heating ducts could be used for cooling, using a right-sized heat pump, at a lower operating cost than heating with oil, at a much lower installed cost than a full-on ductless solution. Right now it’s all an open question.” Emerson W has acquired his first free-standing home, a Cape built in Maryland in 1952, and in no time he’s compiled a long list of upgrades the house will need — everything from a new heating system to dealing with vented, unconditioned crawl spaces.In a lengthy post in the Q&A Forum, Emerson lays out the details of current conditions and a tentative plan for making the house more energy-efficient and more comfortable. His post covers a half-dozen major areas of concern. That’s too many for a single Spotlight, so we’ll look at just a couple — how to approach insulation for a a slate roof, and what to do about a 24-year-old oil-burning furnace.First, the roof. Emerson has apparently spoken with a roofing contractor who believes the slate roof at the front of the house might need replacement in eight years. At that time, Emerson could add rigid foam insulation on top of the existing roof deck, but replacement isn’t in the cards now. On the rear of the house, also roofed in slate, external foam doesn’t look like an option. For those reasons, Emerson thinks an insulate-from-within strategy might be best.Then there’s the HVAC system. The 4,400-square-foot house is heated with a 24-year-old oil burner with a two-zone central air conditioning system. Our expert’s opinionHere’s what GBA technical director Peter Yost thinks:Since Emerson has spent a lot of time on GBA and Building Science Corporation’s websites, I probably don’t need to say this, but I will anyway because it’s so important: Always prioritize according to the list below.Bulk water managementAirtightnessDrying potential (vapor profiles)Thermal continuityIn other words, eliminate leaks or wicking, then air seal, make sure building assemblies can dry if they get wet, and insulate well. And for #3, that includes making sure that you have household sources of moisture under control (for more on that, read “Moisture Sources, Relative Humidity, and Mold.”)That said:Emerson’s slate roof: Our home here in Vermont is over 100 years old and is roofed with slate. Our local roofing expert tells me two things. One, there is a broad range of slate and that can mean the difference between 100 and 200 years of service life. Two, the slates are only as good as the fasteners so assessing a slate roof means learning how the fasteners are holding up. I have never met a slate roof expert who can tell me if the slates have eight or 20 years left. I would talk to at least three references for your roofer in order feel a bit more certain of his (or her) slate “quals.” Or, provide GBA blog-lifers with detailed photos of your slates; maybe seeing your slates up close and personal will help us out on this issue.I also checked in with our local leading roofing company, Jancewicz & Son, on this topic. To start, I asked Brian Knowles about this InspectAPedia web resource, “Slate Roof Wear, Slate ‘Rot,’ Slate Roof Life”.Brian said, “I think the information in the article says it all about evaluating slate condition. There is a lot to know and most of it revolves around where the slate comes from.Roofing slate varies widely in quality. (Photo: Flickr)“For a homeowner, the best way to determine the condition of a slate roof is to look at the slates that have fallen off. Are they mushy, soft, brittle, flakey? Have they broken and fallen off, or are the fasteners failing? If you are getting whole (unbroken) tiles then it is likely there’s a problem with the fasteners. A professional roofer can remove a few tiles and examine the fasteners to see if they are corroding. If the slates are coming off in pieces then you have to decide whether it is a symptom of damage from ice and snow, or whether the slates are just no longer stable.“Vermont slates are usually very long-lasting; most of our slate roofs in Brattleboro usually go bad because of the old steel fasteners, not because the slate is bad. That said, I have a client who has a 14-year old slate roof that was quarried in Vermont from a bad vein with lots of pyrite inclusions. This is the mineral substance that the reference article talks about.“This makes his slates very brittle and flaky, thus requiring extensive repairs every spring. I educated him on this by comparing a high-quality north county black slate tile from New England Slate Company with the stuff from his roof. The difference is obvious. You would have a tough time breaking the good tile over your knee, and it would likely leave a bruise. The bad stuff can be broken in your hand with little to no effort.“The ‘touch and feel’ evaluation is best but is not always easy to perform for the entire roof. You can tell immediately with little to no training weather the slate is good. If it’s bad, it feels bad: it’s brittle, flaky, mushy, or soft. Good slate is what it is — rock. It’s solid and sound; it doesn’t break or crush easily.“It is also important to look at all of the slate on the roof to decide whether it is all the same material. Repairs over time usually get made with material that is different than the original slate used. You don’t want to cast judgment on an entire roof based on the condition of one or two bad slates that were installed by a repair crew who had a bad batch of repair tiles.”Emerson’s HVAC: Definitely get your enclosure where it needs to be (see priority list above) and then right-size whatever system you choose. My personal opinion on HVAC options:Minisplits: the best duct is no duct in my book. Minisplits have a proven track record and they are both simple and quiet compared to just about any ducted system.Ducts and equipment in conditioned space: I know it is possible to seal and bury ducts, but it’s just hard to do well, and then a mess if you have a problem down the road.Air-source vs ground-source: Ground source can be a good fit for larger buildings but it’s just not a good fit for small, single-family detached homes in my book. And it is not easy to find expert installers — ones who understand soils, geology, and HVAC. Insulating a slate roofThe dilemma is not only when to replace the slate, but how to insulate the roof. At the moment, the attic has a scant 2 inches of blown-in fiberglass on the floor. Emerson is aware of the potential problems of spraying closed-cell foam on the underside of the roof.A slate roof is vapor-permeable, Holladay says, and dries readily to the exterior. Slate is often applied over skip sheathing — that is, strips of sheathing applied so there’s a gap between the boards.“If you want to insulate the rafter bays under a slate roof, here are the rules,” Holladay says:“1. Never install spray foam insulation to the underside of the skip sheathing. You don’t want to glue the slates to the roof assembly.“2. The best job will include a ventilation space (at least one inch deep) below the skip sheathing, created with site-built ventilation baffles made of plywood or rigid foam.“3. As with any type of retrofit attempt to insulate rafter bays, the basic problem is that it’s hard to get enough R-value when you are restricted to the depth of the existing rafters.”In Emerson’s case, the slate appears to have been installed over asphalt felt and solid plank sheathing, not skip sheathing. Does that change the insulation strategy?Yes, Holladay replies.“That means (in theory) that you could have closed-cell spray foam installed on the underside of the sheathing if you wanted,” he says. “In practice, however, I would want to verify that the slate is installed on skip sheathing above the asphalt felt. If that’s the way the slate is installed, it’s an excellent installation.“However, if the slate is nailed directly to the solid board sheathing (through the asphalt felt), there isn’t any air space under the slate, and the spray foam installation would be unwise. All of this advice assumes that you care about the slate. In my mind, you should. Slate roofs are a valuable element that add to the historic character of our neighborhoods. Every time a slate roof is lost, the entire neighborhood loses something valuable.” Ductless vs. ground-source heat pumpOptions for new heating and cooling equipment include ductless minisplits and a ground-source heat pump, and a major factor to Emerson is the 30% income tax credit available with the ground-source system as well as low operating costs.“Don’t count the geo-tax-break chickens before they hatch,” Dorsett suggests, “but also vet the geothermal contractors extremely thoroughly.”Ground-source heat pumps are efficient, with relatively high Coefficients of Performance, but Dorsett points out that the stated COP doesn’t include the energy it takes to pump the heat exchange fluid through the earth loop, and that can be significant.“That additional pumping power adds up, and is in the control of the system designer, some of whom are competent; others, well… ” he says. “Typical solutions will deliver an all-in COP of about 3.5 (=HSPF 12-ish) , even though best-case geothermal solutions can be in the ~4 (HSPF 13.5) range, but hitting the 5s requires hiring the Tooth Fairy and his trusty unicorn for the job (though it can be done with very carefully designed ultra-low temperature radiant floors, etc.). “In Climate Zone 4, he adds, a correctly sized ductless system will probably top the performance of a ground-source heat pump on the basis of annual power consumption, although a ground-source heat pump probably would do better than a ducted air source heat pump.“In my area (U.S. climate zone 5A, southern New England, on the edge of Zones 4 and 5 for heating hours) the substantial cost difference is often large enough to pay for enough rooftop PV to cover the full heating energy use of heating with ductless (not just the energy use difference!)” Dorsett says. “But geothermal is also more expensive here than in many areas; thus your mileage may vary.”One other advantage may be cost: “In general, I’m a fan of ductless minisplits,” Holladay writes. “Abandoning your attic ductwork and installing minisplits may be less expensive that creating a conditioned attic or moving your ductwork to a new location inside your home’s thermal envelope.“That said, some people don’t like the look of minisplits, and some minisplit systems introduce the problem of room-to-room temperature variations,” He adds. “Both of these problems can be addressed by using ducted minisplits instead of ductless minisplits.” “I was leaning toward geothermal,” Emerson writes, “contingent on the 30% tax credit returning, but having read GBA on this topic, I am now thoroughly confused. The house layout would be great for minisplits — it looks like a rancher with a partial second floor. Question: What is current thinking on geothermal vs. ductless minisplits?”Despite the lack of upgrades, the Climate Zone 4 house sits on a “great piece of property” and seems to have loads of potential. “Other than these issues,” Emerson says, “the house is a model of green efficiency.” What to do about ducts in the atticEmerson is leaning away from turning the attic into a conditioned space, so that means dealing with heating and cooling ducts in a way that doesn’t court disaster. After reading an article by Building Science Corporation’s Joe Lstiburek, Emerson sees three options:(1) Leave the leaky and partially insulated ducts alone, and blow R-49 worth of insulation on top of them. When the HVAC system is updated in the future, the air handler could be moved into conditioned space and new ducts installed under the second floor — inside the thermal envelope.(2) Air seal and insulate the existing ducts, then bury them in R-49 of insulation.(3) Use the existing ductwork with a new HVAC system.“Hard-piped tight and insulated new ducts in the attic will usually be safe to bury in the attic insulation; leaky ducts, not so much,” Dorsett says. “If you’re going to use the attic ducts even for one season it’s worth making the effort to seal them. Whether the money for new, improved ducts would be better applied to a ductless solution requires more analysis. To be sure, air sealing the attic floor is going to be a lot easier and more reliable over the long term if you can get rid of the dozen or more duct penetrations.” Don’t be hasty with replacing slateSlate roofs are common in some parts of the Northeast where there are, or were, plenty of local quarries. In areas of western Vermont and eastern New York state, for example, even chicken coops and other outbuildings often had slate roofs. When an old barn fell down, the slates could be removed, reused on another building, and still last another couple of decades. These days, slate is an extremely expensive roofing option.“My first reaction, as a former roofer, is that you must have been given bad advice about the slate roof,” says GBA editor Martin Holladay. “A slate roof is a rare and wonderful asset. Unless the original roofer made major blunders, there is no way that slate installed in 1952 ‘has 5-10 years of life left.’ What does that even mean? A slate roof can last 150 or 200 years.”Holladay acknowledges that might be painting too rosy a picture, but he adds that he’s seen perfectly good slate roofs torn off by “ignorant roofers (or knowledgeable roofers who are greedy and want the slate).”“Some roofers advise replacing a slate roof simply because they are inexperienced at flashing replacement,” he adds. “It’s true that some less expensive types of slate can eventually deteriorate due to freeze/thaw damage — although Maryland isn’t a particularly harsh climate — and it’s possible that your slates are deteriorating. I would start by asking your roofer: Exactly why are you recommending that I remove the existing slate?”Emerson says he has received “conflicting guidance” on the slate roof. “Our inspector said 20+ years left (with a 75-year life expectancy),” he says. “A slate roofer (who sell roofs) said 5-8 years on the front, and some spots on the back need major repair or possible replacement sooner.”
While a dizzying array of connected gadgetry is vying for room on city leaders’ wish lists, industry experts advise less focus on the technology itself and more on industry partnerships that can build out smart cities.At the recent U.S. Conference of Mayors held in Washington, D.C., Joanne Hovis, president of Maryland-based IT consultancy CTC Technology & Energy, said that expanding broadband internet access is vital for turbocharging a smart city’s capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship.“There’s increasingly this understanding that the broadband internet is the platform over which our economy and our democracy ride,” she said. “And that is growing every single day.”But she said local governments often face obstacles to building out these broadband networks, such as in Pennsylvania where state laws limit municipalities’ ability to take the lead on broadband.Closer work with private sector needed?Yet even when cities are hamstrung by regulations or budgetary restrictions, local governments can still move forward with new technology by working closer with private companies.For example, Hovis says cash-strapped local governments can spur innovation by easing the permitting process to make it easier for private firms to make progress on building out broadband networks.This U.S. Department of Transportation’s Smart City Challenge focused on cities forging new partnerships with the private sector and academic institutions.Columbus, Ohio, which won the $50 million prize from the DOT competition, has platformed off that win to build partnerships and attract more than $500 million in private funding.The prize money combined with the private funding is helping Columbus undertake a variety of smart city initiatives including installation of smart sensors to improve traffic flow and building out its transit system.“The greatest challenge of the 21st century is to leverage innovation and technology to help people improve their own lives,” said Columbus mayor Andrew Ginther.Columbus cites the smart transit improvements as directly improving its citizens’ quality of life by reconnecting isolated neighborhoods and allowing residents to better commute to jobs and health services. Related Posts How Connected Communities Can Bolster Your Busi… Tags:#Columbus#Department of Transportation#IoT#Smart Cities#Smart City Challenge Surveillance at the Heart of Smart Cities How IoT Will Play an Important Role in Traffic … Donal Power For Self-Driving Systems, Infrastructure and In…